southern bog lemming adaptations

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Southern bog lemmings ( S. cooperi) also inhabit a wide variety of habitats, all of which are marginal for Microtus; bog lemmings may be competitively excluded from better quality habitats by Microtus (Doutt et al. 1973, Linzey 1981). However, it will use a variety of open habitats, including dry grassy ... Conner, P. F. 1959. Southern bog lemmings consume a variety of grasses and other vegetation and act as prey for a number of predators. Food: They eat green vegetation, grasses, other plant material, and some invertebrates. The shallow-grooved upper incisors and a relatively shorter tail distinguish this species from other rodents. Mus. Large greenish fecal droppings and copious cuttings of grass stems are a good sign of the presence of this small mammal. … The home range of the Southern Bog Lemming is limited. Distribution: Southern Bog Lemmings are found throughout Ohio, but records are lacking for a number of counties. It looks more like a Wood Lemming to me, but I am not an expert so I may be wrong. Lemmings do not hibernate and instead endure the tough Arctic winters, with the lemming having special protection from the cold from its thick fur. meadow jumping mouse. TWT © 2020 — Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University. Habitat: Grassy fields, bogs, marshes, and forest edges are the preferred habitats of Southern Bog Lemmings. Southern bog lemmings are covered with thick, brownish fur on their backs that ranges in color from reddish to dark brown and have a grizzled appearance. The belly is silver-gray. Family Murinae: Old World rats and mice . The northern bog lemming does not … They look a great deal like a meadow vole with brown fur and a stocky body. Southern bog lemmings also use tunnels and burrows. It's burrow holes are typically 6-12 inches deep and its home range varies from 1/4 of an acre. Southern Bog Lemming, however, with its heavier jaw musculature and broader incisors, may just be adapted for differing species of plants than the meadow vole. Lemmings are herbivores, and have a varies diet that includes grasses, sedges, berries, shoots and leaves. Two subspecies of the Southern Bog Lemming occur in Kansas; Synaptomys cooperi gossi in the eastern half of the state and Synaptomys cooperi paludis in a … Zapus hudsonius. Tooth structures must be examined under magnification to confirm identification of the two species. The least weasel (Mustela nivalis), the smallest carnivore, shows Holarctic distribution. Family Murinae: Old World rats and mice. The Southern Bog Lemming can be distinguished from other members of its family by: 1) thick-set body and large head, 2) tail no longer than the hind foot, 3) short ears concealed by its hair, 4) long loose brownish to golden dorsal fur mixed with gray and black hairs, 5) underparts and shoulders washed with white, with slate colored hairs showing through, 6) grayish tan feet with the first digit having a flat nail, and 7) yellowish-orange upper incisors with a groove on the outer edge of the anterior surface. house mouse Mus musculus. Best places to see in Tennessee: Low … This species is more common in deciduous and mixed coniferous –deciduous forests. Reproduction: Breeding may occur during any month of the year, but at this latitude is unlikely during the … Synaptomys cooperi Baird, 1858 – southern bog lemming. Map developed from published literature, examination of museum specimens, and observations/photographs from trusted sources. See the Southern Bog Lemming just out of its natural habitat. The lemming is a good source of food for snakes, hawks, owls, shrews, weasels, foxes, coyotes, and bobcats. Jerry Cullen, Southern Illinois University Dan Dawson, University of Illinois Extension Service Anita Descourouez, The Grove Nature Center, Glenview ... southern bog lemming Synaptomys cooperi. Southern Bog Lemmings feed on the tender succulent parts of herbaceous plants and will occasionally eat mosses, fungi, bark, roots and some invertebrates (Linzey 1983). Average longevity for this mammal is less than one year. Populations in Washington, which are found mainly in the northeastern part of the state, occur at the southern edge of the species' range and may therefore be … Publ. Family Muridae. The only other species with which a Southern Bog Lemming might be confused is the Pine Vole (Microtus pinetorum); also known as the Woodland Vole. The dominance of southern bog lemmings and woodland voles.--It is likely that this unusual pair of dominant rodents resulted from the absence of the large and usually common oldfield rodents in our region, especially meadow voles and hispid cotton rats. Rattus norvegicus. Family Dipodidae: Jumping mice. It's burrow holes are typically 6-12 inches deep and its home range varies from 1/4 of an acre. The upper incisors are longitudinally grooved.The upper parts are mixed black, gray, and yellowish brown, giving a grizzled cinnamon brown appearance. Additional Information: Like the voles, these rodents construct and use previously constructed runways through grass. The Southern bog lemming is not found to hibernate (Linzey 1983). Gottschang (1981) mentions their range is spotty and only certain locations within a county will harbor a population. Also, female northern bog lemmings have eight mammae (milk-secreting organ of females), while southern bog lemmings only have six. In wooded areas, they occasionally make runways by pushing up leaf mold. The species is found in scattered pockets across Pennsylvania, mainly in old fields grown up with poverty grass, timothy, … Description: This brown species is similar to the voles in Ohio, but only the velvety furred Woodland Vole has such a short tail. The hip glands of males are similar to those of arctic lemmings in that they have whitish hairs in the pelage covering the glands; the glands are especially conspicuous during the breeding season. Also, female northern bog lemmings have eight mammae, while southern bog lemmings only have six. Linzey (1984), who conducted removal experiments and … Individuals are most active during the night, but may move about during the day, too. Southern Bog Lemmings have grooves down their front teeth that the voles lack and have shorter tails 3/4 to 1 inch in length. The bog lemming SYNAPTOMYS COOPERI in southern New Jersey. Habitat: Grassy fields, bogs, marshes, and forest edges are the preferred habitats of Southern Bog Lemmings. Macroecological analyses have shown that there is a relationship between range size and body size in modern North American … Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 - house mouse I . It is an herbivore adapted to eating coarse vegetation, grasses, sedges, mushrooms, … The upper incisors are longitudinally grooved. County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences): Anderson (6); Atchison (18); Barber (7); Barton (4); Brown (4); Butler (1); Douglas (231); Ellis (3); Ellsworth (2); Franklin (2); Jefferson (50); Jewell (1); Leavenworth (9); Lincoln (3); Lyon (5); Marion (12); Marshall (1); Meade (42); Nemaha (5); Osage (26); Osborne (6); Pottawatomie (6); Republic (1); Rice (1); Riley (2); Rooks (6); Russell (4); Saline (3); Stafford (2); Unknown (1); Washington (3); Woodson (6); The home range of the Southern Bog Lemming is limited. Family Erethizontidae The size of this species is medium with a total length from 119-135 mm and a weight of 26-36 grams. It is active both summer and winter, and in areas of dense overhead cover is frequently active during the day. This is a state listed species that appears to have experienced population declines, but A. Avram has seen them on numerous occasions in two Lake County locations: Mentor Marsh and Lake Erie Bluffs. The Southern Bog Lemming is preyed upon snakes, hawks, owls, weasels, foxes, coyotes, and bobcats. They compete with other small rodents, particularly meadow voles. Food: They eat green vegetation, grasses, other plant material, and some invertebrates. The southern bog lemming is active throughout the year. The ears barely show through puffy head fur. Active primarily at night, the Southern bog lemming is also out in the afternoon and evening. Observation in captive and research settings have found that S. cooperi is mostly docile and handled with ease. Tim R. Nagy wrote that it might be a southern bog lemming. brown rat. Keen … Total Length: 4.5” (the tail measures about 0.75”). Lemmings spend most of their lives alone, only coming together to mate. The Norway lemming, Lemmus lemmus, of Scandinavia is best known for its mass migrational behavior. Southern Bog Lemming Southern Bog Lemmings are found throughout Connecticut, but are elusive and rarely seen. Synaptomys cooperi Baird, 1858 - southern bog lemming . •Southern Bog Lemmings are colonial and can number from a few up to 20 or 30 individuals. Unlike the southern bog lemming, the northern species has rusty-tipped fur at the base of the ears. The size of this species is medium with a total length from 119-135 mm and a weight of26-36 grams. Meadow voles tend to out-compete southern bog lemmings. The upper parts are brownish gray, the belly grayish, and the tail grayish black. The lemmings spend the winter searching for bulbs and shoots that are often buried beneath the snow. Systematic searches in appropriate habitats in the White Mountain National Forest located 1 The Kansas Department of Wildlife & Parks lists southern bog lemmings as a species in need of conservation. It grows to an average length of 4 inches and an average weight of just over an ounce. Despite the rather dramatic changes evinced by some species (e.g., southern bog lemming), other species do not change their range size substantially in response to climate change. Stone’s southern bog lemming (Synaptomys cooperi stonei) Characteristics. Habitat: The Southern Bog Lemming's habitat ranges from wet grasslands, forests, to grassy wetlands. Southern bog lemmings h… Lemming predators include Snowy Owls, Gulls, Arctic Foxes, and even … Southern bog lemming (Synaptomys Cooperi) local Eastern woodrat (Neotoma floridana) common Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) common White-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) common Western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis) common Plains harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys … •They excrete bright green fecal pellets due to the large amount of green vegetation consumed. Southern bog lemmings are found in eastern North America, from southern Quebec and Manitoba in Canada to western Minnesota, to southwestern Kansas, and east to the Atlantic coast of the United States. Family Dipodidae: Jumping mice . Their nests are approximately 200 mm in diameter, are made of grasses and weeds, are lined with fine grasses and plant fibers (sometimes with soft fur), and are placed in tunnels 100-150 mm below ground, under logs, or above ground among bunches of grass generally nests are built above ground in summer and below ground in winter. Book Review: A Naturalist’s Guide to the Fishes of Ohio. If a dead specimen is found, then a groove down the center of each incisor can be seen which helps distinguish this species. They have relatively large heads and small eyes. Its passive behavior has been found to occur in the … The grassy openings and edges of these … Southern limits of its reported North American range extend from Montana through the upper Midwest to western Pennsylvania then south along the Appalachians into North Carolina (Hall, 1981; Sheffield and King, 1994). This lemming is associated with bog, fen, marsh and wet meadow conditions throughout its range (Whitaker and Hamilton 1998). Young southern bog lemmings are darker and more slaty than adults. Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780) – meadow jumping mouse. Family Dipodidae. southern bog lemming (Synaptomys cooperi helaletes) Characteristics. Remark: To me, the lemming drawing doesn't look like a Normay lemming as written in this remark. the southern bog lemming, the northern species has rusty-tipped fur at the base of the ears. Southern bog lemmings host external parasites such as mites, lice, and … Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above. Michigan State … The Southern Bog Lemming prefers boggy habitat and can be common in marshes, meadows and upland forests with a thick humus layer (Linzey 1981). The bog lemming is probably the least understood mammal species in New Hampshire due to its rarity. The range of the northern bog lemming is comprised of relatively cool or cold environments, thus the species may be vulnerable to warming climatic patterns. Average longevity for this mammal is less than one year. Tooth structures must be examined under magnification to confirm identification of the … It is active both summer and winter, and in areas of dense overhead cover is frequently active during the day. Southern bog lemmings have distinctive runways, as piles of grass clippings approximately 8 cm in length are left nearby in addition to their droppings, which are light green in color. Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780) - meadow jumping mouse . specimens of southern bog lemmings, it produced no specimens of northern bog lemmings. The shallow tunnels it makes appear as small ridges, and resemble mole runs. Runways of the southern bog lemming may be shared with the prairie vole. Lemming habitat includes tundra, boreal forest and steppe. Keen observers can sometimes see them darting from underfoot in these runways, where they are readily identified by their short tail. Large greenish fecal droppings and copious cuttings of grass stems are a good sign of the presence of this small mammal. Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) - Norway rat I . Synaptomys cooperi photo credit: animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/ ID Small, robust, short legs, large head, very short tail Long, shaggy fur Mixed brown, gray, and black upper parts with a little bit of dark yellow Silverish gray underparts (Whitaker) Distribution Reproduction Young can be Both Lake County locations mentioned offer some of the best wet meadow or marshland in the county. It has brown and grey fur and a short stubby tail. The northern bog lemming is a small rodent related to gerbils and hamsters, two common house pets. Family … Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) – Norway rat I Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 – house mouse I. The southern bog lemming looks much like the meadow vole, with chestnut brown upper parts and silver-gray sides and belly. The northern bog lemming is rarely trapped and is one The Arvicolinae are a subfamily of rodents that includes the voles, lemmings, and muskrats.They are most closely related to the other subfamilies in the Cricetidae (comprising the hamsters and New World rats and mice).Some authorities place the subfamily Arvicolinae in the family Muridae along with all other members of the … Additional Information: Like the voles, these rodents construct and use previously constructed runways through grass. Description: The southern bog lemming can be distinguished from other members of its family by: 1) thick-set body and large head, 2) tail no longer than the hind foot, 3) short ears concealed by its hair, 4) long loose brownish to golden dorsal fur mixed with gray and black hairs, 5) underparts and shoulders washed with white, with … Pine Length is 4.5 - 5.7 inches, including a tail of 0.6 - 1 inch; weight is 0.9 - 1.6 ounces. 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